In this article, Anishinaabe scholar Leanne Simpson explains her nation’s heritage of pre-colonial treaty-making. She discusses the maintenance of treaty relations with the animal nations, as well as the Gdoo-naaganinaa (One Dish, or Dish with One Spoon Treaty) between the Anishinaabe and the Haudenosaunee to share resources and stewardship of their overlapping and shared territories while respecting and upholding each nation’s sovereignty. Simpson draws connections to subsequent treaty-making between the Anishinaabe and the British and Canadian Crowns and the imperative to uphold responsibilities toward “all our relations.”

Looking after Gdoo-Naaganinaa: Precolonial Nishnaabeg Diplomatic and Treaty Relationships